I took a look at the first problem on the Project Euler site earlier this afternoon:

http://projecteuler.net/problem=1

This asks you to find the sum of the natural numbers that are less than 1000 and are multiples of 3 or 5.

I decided that Haskell’s `filter`

function and a lambda would make this problem trivially easy to solve. In GHCi:

Prelude> let sumMultiplesOf3Or5 max = sum(filter(\x -> (mod x 3 == 0) || (mod x 5 == 0))[1 .. max - 1]) Prelude> sumMultiplesOf3Or5 1000 233168

As I played around with other values for `max`

, something unexpected appeared before my eyes. A pattern of repeated digits begins to emerge in the sums of the multiples of 3 and 5 less than 10 to the power of `i`

as `i`

increases.

Prelude> map sumMultiplesOf3Or5 (map (\i -> 10 ^ i) [1..6]) [23,2318,233168,23331668,2333316668,233333166668]

Something similar happens with the sums of the multiples of 3 or 5 less than 20, 200,…,30,300, and so on:

Prelude> map (\j -> map sumMultiplesOf3Or5 (map (\i -> j * 10 ^ i) [1..6])) [1..9] [[23,2318,233168,23331668,2333316668,233333166668],[78,9168,931668,93316668,9333166668,933331666668],[195,20850,2098500,209985000,20999850000,2099998500000],[368,37268,3732668,373326668,37333266668,3733332666668],[543,57918,5829168,583291668,58332916668,5833329166668],[810,83700,8397000,839970000,83999700000,8399997000000],[1133,114218,11432168,1143321668,114333216668,11433332166668],[1428,148668,14926668,1493266668,149332666668,14933326666668],[1845,188550,18895500,1889955000,188999550000,18899995500000]]

Reformatted:

[[23,2318,233168,23331668,2333316668,233333166668], -- [10,100,1000,10000,100000,1000000] [78,9168,931668,93316668,9333166668,933331666668], -- [20,200,2000,20000,200000,2000000] [195,20850,2098500,209985000,20999850000,2099998500000], -- and so on [368,37268,3732668,373326668,37333266668,3733332666668], [543,57918,5829168,583291668,58332916668,5833329166668], [810,83700,8397000,839970000,83999700000,8399997000000], [1133,114218,11432168,1143321668,114333216668,11433332166668], [1428,148668,14926668,1493266668,149332666668,14933326666668], [1845,188550,18895500,1889955000,188999550000,18899995500000]]

I’m not sure if this continues indefinitely. I wonder if similar patterns emerge with numbers in different bases. I’m curious about trying multiples of numbers other than 3 or 5. At this point, I’ve really no idea why this happens, but my curiosity is aroused.

I’m also really impressed with Haskell, a language that I barely know. The only other time I’ve used functional programming seriously is with C# and VB.Net for LINQ, of which I am a huge fan.